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James A. Garcia

Music Methods II MUE332-01

Dr. J. Bryan Burton

February 11, 2003

WORLD MUSIC LESSON

 

YO-SHI NAI: A Navajo Dance Song

(Native American)

 

GRADE LEVEL: 6th grade General Music Class

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:

Content Standard 1: Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music.

Achievement Standard a: sing independently, on pitch and in rhythm, with appropriate timbre, diction, and posture, and maintain
            a steady tempo

Achievement Standard c: sing music representing diverse *genres and cultures, with expression appropriate for the work being performed.

 

Content Standard 2: Performing on instruments, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music

Achievement Standard a: perform on pitch, in rhythm, with appropriate dynamics and timbre, and maintain a steady tempo

Achievement Standard b: perform easy rhythmic, melodic, and chordal patterns accurately and independently on rhythmic, melodic, and
            harmonic *classroom instruments

 

Content Standard 5: Reading and notating music

Achievement Standard a: read whole, half, quarter, eighth, sixteenth, and dotted notes and rests in 2/4 , 3/4 , 4/4 , 6/8 , 3/8 , and
            alla breve meter signatures

Achievement Standard b: read at sight simple melodies in both the treble and bass clefs

 

Content Standard 9: Understanding music in relation to history and culture

Achievement Standard b: describe in simple terms how elements of music are used in music examples from various cultures of the world.

 

OBJECTIVES:

1.  The students will be able to identify and describe several aspects of Navajo history and culture.

2.  The students will be able to sing the melody to the Navajo dance song, “YO-SHI NAI,” with correct pitch and accuracy while dancing
      an Indian circle dance.

3.  The students will be able to play the melody to the Navajo dance song, “YO-SHI NAI,” on a soprano recorder with correct pitch and
      rhythm accuracy.

4.  The students will be able to accompany “YO-SHI NAI” with a simple Native American style drum accompaniment based on a version
      heard in a recording.

 

READINESS STATEMENT:

 1.  The students are be able to read and play the notes D, E, F, G, and A, on the soprano recorder.
 2.  The students have learned to perform the circle or round dance to “He Ya, He Ya.”

CULTURAL CONTEXT:

“The Navajo people's ancient culture is very much alive. Most, if not all their children speak Navajo, and they are being tutored in the old ways. The Navajo culture is ancient. It goes back further than anyone can remember. But these teachings remain fresh and new, and as revelant today as the times when the Holy Ones gave them. These people have a very unique way of maintaining strong ties to the past and their ancient beliefs. To understand the Navajo and their self reliant nature you must first understand their culture. Their very movements are entrenched in their rich heritage. The Navajos are a perfect example of how a nation's very existence hinges on the powerful ancient forces that bind them together as a people. This is a very powerful force. For without this, I believe, they, as a people, would cease to be.”
(Note:  Text excerpts from “The Navajo Homepage” at http://waltonfeed.com/peoples/navajo/  31 Jan 2003.)


MATERIALS:

1.  “YO-SHI NAI: Navajo Dance Song,” page 278, from Making Music, Silver Burdett Teacher’s Edition Grade 6, 2002 Pearson Education.

2.   Compact disk (CD #11, track 21) recording of the song, “YO-SHI NAI: Navajo Dance Song,” from Making Music,
                  Silver Burdett Teacher’s Edition Grade 6, 2002 Pearson Education.

3.  “Navajo History and Culture” information handout (Note:  A copy of the music to “YO-SHI NAI” is also included in the handout).

4.   Cassette or Compact disc player and sound system.

5.   Soprano recorders and hand drums.


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TEACHING PROCESS:

            1.  The teacher will setup the compact disc player and sound system before class begins.

 

            2.  The teacher will distribute the “Navajo History and Culture” information handout to the students. 
                 
(Note.  The handout also includes the Navajo dance song “YO-SHI NAI”).

 

            3.  The teacher will ask the students to refer to the “Navajo History and Culture” handout.  Discuss the following with the students.

4.  Student Assignment.  Use the library, internet, or other sources to find maps that show where the Navajo land is located. 
     Types of Navajo dwellings.  Sacred Places
.

 

5.  The teacher will ask the students to refer to the “YO-SHI NAI: Navajo Dance Song,” in the “Navajo History and Culture” handout.

 

            6.  The teacher will review the song by playing the music, on the compact disc player and sound system, to the class. 

 

7.  The teacher will rehearse and sing the song.

·        Play the recording.

·        Students should pay attention to the words.

·        Ask the students to speak the words before singing.

·        Ask the students to sing the words with the music.

·        Repeat until the students are able to sing the song.

 

8.  The teacher will ask the students to retrieve their soprano recorders.
                  (NOTE:  This lesson assumes the students know how to play the notes on the recorder.

·        Remind students not to play their recorders until told to play.

·        Place their recorders in the chin position.

·        Finger the notes while the teacher plays the music on the recorder.

 

9.  The teacher will demonstrate and play the music on the recorder.  Students should:

·        Remind students they will only play the introduction on the recorder.

·        Place their recorders in the chin position.

·        Finger the notes while the teacher plays the music on the recorder.

 

10.  The teacher will ask the students to perform the song.  Rehearse the music as follows.

·        Select students to play the drum rhythm.

·        Introduction with drum and recorders.

·        Drum continues playing while students sing. Recorders do not play when there is singing.

·        Rehearse slowly until the students are able to play each line.

 

11.  The teacher will review the steps for the circle dance.

 

12.  Perform the song with singing, recorders, drums, and the circle dance.

·        Rehearse all parts together.

·        Add the circle dance while the students are singing and playing the song.

·        Repeat until all students are confident in singing, dancing, and playing their individual parts.

·        Switch parts so that all students have an opportunity to sing, play the recorder, and drums.

15    Conclude the lesson by reviewing the history and culture of the Navajo Indians.  Have students put instruments away. 

 

INDICATORS OF SUCCESS:

1.  The students are able to identify and describe several aspects of Navajo history and culture.

2.  The students are able to sing the melody to the Navajo dance song, “YO-SHI NAI,” with correct pitch and accuracy while dancing
      an Indian circle dance.

3.  The students are able to play the melody to the Navajo dance song, “YO-SHI NAI,” on a soprano recorder with correct pitch and
      rhythm accuracy.

4.  The students are able to accompany “YO-SHI NAI” with a simple Native American style drum accompaniment based on a version
      heard in a recording.

 

ASSESSMENT:

            Performance (part of ongoing performance skills evaluation)

1.      One class period will be reserved for assessing the students’ performance of “YO-SHI NAI.”

2.      The teacher will listen to individual students sing the YO-SHI NAI” to determine whether
(a) students are singing correct pitches,
(b) singing the words with the correct pronunciation, and
(c) while dancing a circle dance.

3.      The teacher will listen to individual students play the song“YO-SHI NAI” on the soprano recorder to determine whether
(a) students are playing the correct pitches,
(b) and rhythm.

4.      The teacher will observe the students to assess the students’ ability to play correct rhythm on the hand drum.

5.      A multiple criterion scale will be used:

 

 

Criterion

Achievement Level

Criterion 1

Student sings the correct pitches to the song

 

Always                    Most of the time

Unable

Criterion 2

Student sings words with correct pronunciation.

Always                    Most of the time

Unable

Criterion 3

Student is able to dance while singing.

Always                    Most of the time

Unable

Criterion 4

Student plays correct pitches and rhythm on the recorder.

Always                    Most of the time

Unable

Criterion 5

Student plays the hand drum using proper technique and correct rhythm.

Always                    Most of the time

Unable

 

Contextual understanding:

            Students will be given a written quiz covering historical and contextual information.

Great

All correct

OK

70% correct

Needs improvement

65% correct

Failing

None correct

 

DIVERSITY STATEMENT: In Native American culture, both men and women sing this song and dance piece, the teacher should assign players/dancers in a way that allows gender equity.  If dance/movement is used as an extension of the lesson, the improvisatory nature of the dance will allow physically challenged students to dance at their level of ability without penalty.


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Navajo History and Culture

 Navajo Mountains

Navajo Seal Information is from the “The Navajo website” at
http://waltonfeed.com/peoples/navajo/seal.html 
31 Jan 2003.

Navajo SealThe Southwest's American Indian population is culturally diverse. The largest tribes are the Navajo in the "Four Corners" area, where the states of Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico meet; several Apache tribes in Arizona and New Mexico; the various Pueblo groups in New Mexico; the Papago in southern Arizona; the Hopi in northwestern Arizona; and the Utes in southwestern Colorado.

The Navajo Seal:  Fifty outward pointing arrowheads form the outer edge of the seal. Inside this are three bands of the rainbow. They are open at the top, as is the ring of arrowheads. This open area at the top signifies life. Inside the rainbow are two stalks of corn. Corn signifies many important things in the Navajo culture. The whole teaching of our ceremonial system is all in a stock of corn which symbolizes life. In the main stock of the corn there is a blessing waiting. The leaves that come off the corn stock are the different paths one can take and the different levels of knowledge. Of the different ways there is the night way, mountain way, bead way, lightening way, family way and warring way. Inside the corn are the four holy mountains. These holy mountains mark the boundaries of the Navajo land the Holy Ones gave us thousands of years ago. They also represent Mother Earth and the Universe. Directly between the top and the bottom mountain is a horse, a cow and a sheep. These animals also represent life to our people. The sun is above the top mountain, representing Father Sun and life.


Student Activity.  Use the library, internet, or other sources to find maps that show where the Navajo land is located.  Types of Navajo dwellings.  Sacred Places.


YO-SHI-NAI: A Navajo Dance Song

“YO-SHI NAI: Navajo Dance Song,” from Making Music, Silver Burdett Teacher’s Edition Grade 6, 2002 Pearson Education.

“Yo-Shi-Nai is a circle dance song that means “come and dance.”  It is a public part of the Navajo Enemy Way, a ceremony honoring the return of Navajo warriors” (Silver Burdett, Grade 6, p. 278).  Compact Disk Recording on CD11, track 21. (Note:  Compact disk (CD #11, track 21) recording of the song, “YO-SHI NAI: Navajo Dance Song,” from Making Music, Silver Burdett Teacher’s Edition Grade 6, 2002 Pearson Education)


Yo-Shi Nai Music


Yo-Shi Nai Music Accompaniment


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